History of Mumbai!

History of Mumbai!

History of Mumbai!,Mumbai, formerly Bombay, metropolis, capital of Maharashtra state, southwestern India. It is the u . S .’s monetary and commercial centre and its foremost port on the Arabian Sea.

Located on Maharashtra’s coast, IT is India’s most-populous town, and it’s miles one among the biggest and maximum densely populated urban areas in the global. It changed into constructed on a domain of historic agreement, and it took its name from the nearby goddess Mumba—a shape of Parvati, the consort of Shiva, one of the primary deities of Hinduism—whose temple as soon as stood in what is now the southeastern segment of the town.

It became referred to as Bombay at some point of the British colonial period, the call likely an Anglicized corruption of Mumbai or perhaps of Bom Baim (“Good Harbour”), supposedly a Portuguese call for the locale. The name Mumbai turned into restored formally in 1995, despite the fact that Bombay remained in commonplace usage.

Mumbai, lengthy the centre of India’s cotton fabric enterprise, finally evolved a rather assorted production quarter that blanketed an increasingly more essential records technology (IT) thing. In addition, the city’s business and monetary establishments are strong and lively, and Mumbai serves because the united states of america’s financial hub.

It suffers, but, from some of the perennial issues of many large increasing commercial cities: air and water pollutants, extensive areas of substandard housing, and overcrowding. The final hassle is exacerbated by means of the physical limits of the town’s island area. Area about 239 square miles (619 square km). Pop. (2001) 11,978,450; city agglom., 16,434,386; (2011) 12,478,447; urban agglom., 18,414,288.

The old metropolis included approximately 26 rectangular miles (67 square km), stretching from Colaba Point on the southern tip of Bombay Island to the regions known as Mahim and Sion on its northern coast. In 1950 Mumbai expanded northward, embracing the big island of Salsette, which was joined to Bombay Island through a causeway.

By 1957 some of suburban municipal boroughs and some neighbouring villages on Salsette have been included into Greater Mumbai—the metropolitan place surrounding Bombay Island and the city itself. Since then Greater Mumbai has continued to amplify.

History of Mumbai!
History of Mumbai!

The natural splendor of Mumbai is unsurpassed by means of that of maximum other towns inside the place. The entrance into Mumbai Harbour from the ocean discloses a fantastic panorama framed via the Western Ghats mountain variety at the mainland.

The wide harbour, studded with islands and dotted with the white sails of innumerable small craft, presents secure shelter to ships, particularly when storms lash the coast. The biggest of the harbour’s islands is Elephanta, that is famous for its eighth- and ninth-century Hindu cave temples.

Typical trees within the metropolis consist of coconut fingers, mango timber, tamarinds, and banyan timber. Salsette Island changed into as soon as the hang-out of wild animals along with tigers, leopards, jackals, and deer, but the ones are now not observed there. Animal existence now includes cows, oxen, sheep, goats, and other home species, in addition to monkeys. Birdlife includes vultures, pigeons, peacocks, cranes, and geese.


The climate of Mumbai is heat and humid. There are four seasons. Cool climate prevails from December to February and warm weather from March to May. The rainy season, added through monsoon winds from the southwest, lasts from June to September and is observed by using the post-monsoon season, lasting via October and November, whilst the weather is once more warm. Mean month-to-month temperatures vary from ninety one °F (33 °C) in May to sixty seven °F (19 °C) in January. Annual rainfall is about 70 inches (1,800 mm), with an average of 24 inches (600 mm) going on in July on my own.

City layout

The older part of Mumbai is a whole lot built-up and with out vegetation, but the greater affluent areas, such as Malabar Hill, incorporate some greenery; there are a number of open playgrounds and parks. In the direction of urban enlargement, a few residential sections of Mumbai have fallen right into a country of significant disrepair, while in different regions clusters of makeshift houses (often illegal “squatter” settlements) have arisen to accommodate the town’s increasing populace. Moreover, an alarming amount of air and water pollution has been generated by Mumbai’s many factories, by using the developing quantity of vehicular site visitors, and via close by oil refineries.

History of Mumbai!
History of Mumbai!

Mumbai’s boom because the Nineteen Forties has been regular if now not extraordinary. At the turn of the 20th century its populace turned into a few 850,000, by way of 1950 it had greater than doubled, and over the subsequent 50 years it multiplied nearly 10-fold to exceed 16 million. Population increase persisted into the 21st century. The metropolis’s beginning fee is a lot decrease than that of the usa as an entire due to family-planning packages.


Mumbai is the economic hub and business and financial centre of India. Its economic composition in a few respects mirrors India’s specific mosaic of prosperity and technological achievement vis-à-vis impoverishment and underdevelopment. While Mumbai carries the Indian Atomic Energy Commission’s established order, with its nuclear reactors and plutonium separators, many regions at the outskirts of the city preserve to depend on traditional biogenic assets of gas and strength (inclusive of cow dung).

Manufacturing and technology

Although cotton fabric manufacturing, via which Mumbai prospered in the nineteenth century, stays critical to the metropolis’s economy, it has lost a good deal ground to newer industries, especially for the reason that past due 20th century. Production of metals, chemical substances, motors, and electronics together with a host of ancillary industries at the moment are a number of the metropolis’s essential corporations. Other manufacturing sports, along with meals processing, papermaking, printing, and publishing, also are significant assets of income and employment.

After years of lagging in the back of towns including Bengaluru (Bangalore) and Hyderabad, Mumbai commenced developing its own statistics era (IT) area inside the late twentieth century. Technology agencies have been endorsed to move particularly to the northern and japanese suburbs, drawn there by using enhancements in infrastructure and low rents. Of be aware are a special economic area installation inside the northern part of the town in 2000 and centers for IT agencies in Navi Mumbai.

History of Mumbai!
History of Mumbai!

Finance and other offerings

The Reserve Bank of India, the united states of america’s critical bank, is positioned in Mumbai. A variety of different commercial banks, a government-owned existence coverage employer, and diverse lengthy-term funding monetary institutions also are based totally inside the metropolis. All of these establishments have attracted main economic and business offerings to Mumbai.

The Bombay Stock Exchange is the united states of america’s main inventory and proportion market. Although some of economic hubs sprang up across the united states of america considering that independence and reduced the change’s pre-independence stature, it stays the preeminent centre in extent of monetary and other business transacted and serves as a barometer of the u . S .’s economic system.

Transportation of Mumbai

Mumbai is hooked up by way of a community of roads to the relaxation of India. It is the railhead for the Western and Central railways, and trains from the city carry goods and passengers to all elements of the u . S ..

During the early Nineteen Seventies, if you want to relieve road congestion, Salsette Island changed into connected to the mainland with the aid of a bridge across Thana Creek, the headwaters of Mumbai Harbour. More specific highways and extra bridges were constructed due to the fact that then. Notable additions to the road network are the Banda-Worli Sea Link (opened 2009), which bridges Mahim Bay at the west side of the city, and a brand new limited-access highway between jap Mumbai and Navi Mumbai (opened 2014) that supersedes the sooner Thana Creek bridge.

Blurred movement outside Victoria Station in Mumbia, India. Central Station Mumbai, Mumbai CST, Victoria Terminus, Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus.

Geography of India

History of Mumbai!
History of Mumbai!

How a whole lot do you realize about India’s geography? Test your understanding with this quiz.
Air visitors is treated via Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport within the northern a part of the town. It includes two terminals—domestic and global—that are approximately three miles (5 km) aside on either facet of the runway machine. A new global terminal opened in 2014, changing an older facility. Mumbai is certainly one of two major air hubs in India—the other being Delhi—and handles maximum of the country’s worldwide flights and a big percentage of its home service.

Administration and society

As the capital of Maharashtra nation, the town is an integral political division of the state government, the headquarters of that are referred to as the Mantralaya. The country administers Mumbai’s police force and has administrative control over positive town departments. The imperative Indian government controls verbal exchange and transportation infrastructure, including the postal service, the railways, the port, and the airport. Mumbai is the headquarters of India’s western naval fleet and the base for the Indian flagship, INS Mumbai.

The authorities of the town is vested inside the absolutely autonomous Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM). Its legislative body is elected on person franchise each four years and functions through its various status committees. The leader government, who is appointed every 3 years via the nation authorities, is the municipal commissioner. The mayor is yearly elected via the MCGM; the mayor presides over organisation meetings and enjoys the very best honour in the metropolis but has no real administrative authority.

Municipal offerings

The manifold features of the town authorities include the availability or preservation of medical offerings, education, water supply, hearth services, rubbish disposal, markets, gardens, and engineering projects along with drainage improvement and the improvement of roads and avenue lights. The MCGM operates the transport machine within the town and the supply of energy as public utilities.

After acquiring electric powered energy from a grid system provided by means of publicly and privately owned companies, the MCGM ensures that it’s miles dispensed at some stage in the city. The water supply, additionally maintained by using the municipality, comes largely from Tansa Lake, in the adjacent Thane district of Maharashtra, and secondarily from the Vaitarna River and from Tulsi and Vehar lakes in Mumbai.


Mumbai has extra than 100 hospitals, along with the ones run by way of federal, nation, or city authorities and some of specialized establishments treating tuberculosis, most cancers, and coronary heart disease. In addition, there are a number of distinguished private hospitals. Also located in Mumbai is the Haffkine Institute, a leading bacteriologic research centre specializing in tropical sicknesses.


Mumbai’s literacy fee is a lot better than that of the country as a whole. Primary schooling is loose and compulsory; it’s miles the duty of the MCGM. Secondary schooling is supplied largely by public schools that are supervised by the kingdom government, in addition to by way of numerous independently run personal colleges for college students whose households can afford them.

There also are public and private polytechnic institutes and establishments presenting college students a variety of degree and diploma guides in mechanical, electric, and chemical engineering. The Indian Institute of Technology, operated via the significant authorities, is placed within the metropolis. The University of Mumbai, hooked up in 1857, has extra than a hundred constituent colleges and more than dozen coaching departments. Several colleges in the nation of Goa are affiliated with the university.

Cultural life

Mumbai’s cultural existence reflects its ethnically diverse population. The town has some of museums, libraries, literary agencies, artwork galleries, theatres, and other cultural establishments. The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (formerly the Prince of Wales Museum of Western India), housed in a building that could be a British architectural mixture of Hindu and Muslim styles, incorporates 3 primary sections: art, archaeology, and natural records.

Nearby is the Jehangir Art Gallery, Mumbai’s first everlasting artwork gallery and a centre for cultural and academic sports. Western and Indian tune concert events, gala’s, and dance productions are held during the year in the town’s many cultural and entertainment facilities. Mumbai also is the centre of the giant Indian film industry, called Bollywood, the name derived from an amalgamation of Bombay (the city’s former call) and Hollywood.

History of Mumbai!

The Koli, an aboriginal tribe of fishermen, were the earliest acknowledged population of present-day Mumbai, though Paleolithic stone implements determined at Kandivli, in Greater Mumbai, suggest that the place has been inhabited by using human beings for loads of lots of years. The metropolis become a centre of maritime exchange with Persia and Egypt in one thousand BCE. It changed into a part of Ashoka’s empire within the 3rd century BCE, and within the 2d century CE it changed into known as Heptanesia to Ptolemy, the historic Egyptian astronomer and geographer of Greek descent.

The town turned into dominated inside the sixth–eighth century by the Chalukyas, who left their mark on Elephanta Island (Gharapuri). The Walkeswar Temple at Malabar Point changed into in all likelihood constructed at some stage in the rule of thumb of Shilahara chiefs from the Konkan coast (9th–13th century). Under the Yadavas of Devagiri (later Daulatabad; 1187–1318), the settlement of Mahikavati (Mahim) on Bombay Island become based in response to raids from the north by means of the Khalji dynasty of Hindustan in 1294. Descendants of the Yadavas are found in cutting-edge Mumbai, and maximum of the area-names on the island date from that generation.

In 1348 the island was conquered through invading Muslim forces and became part of the dominion of Gujarat. A Portuguese attempt to overcome Mahim failed in 1507, however in 1534 Sultan Bahādur Shah, the ruler of Gujarat, ceded the island to the Portuguese. In 1661 it got here under British control as part of the wedding agreement between King Charles II and Catherine of Braganza, sister of the king of Portugal. The crown ceded it to the East India Company in 1668.

Chakravarthi Raghavan

The destruction of the Babri Masjid (“Mosque of Bābur”) in Ayodhya in December 1992 sparked sectarian rioting in Bombay and for the duration of India that lasted into early 1993 and induced the deaths of hundreds of human beings. A few years later the town modified its name to Mumbai, the Marathi call for the town. In the early 21st century Mumbai experienced some of terrorist attacks. Among the most amazing of these had been the bombing of a teach in July 2006 and the simultaneous siege of several websites in the metropolis in late November 2008; almost 2 hundred lives have been misplaced in every of the 2 incidents.

Targets of the November 2008 terrorist attack in Mumbai, India.

Mumbai persisted to grow and prosper within the twenty first century, in large component because of advances within the generation quarter. By the second one decade of the century the populace of Greater Mumbai became coming near 20 million.

The town’s infrastructure became advanced considerably with the construction of latest highways and bridges, growth of port facilities, and the inauguration of recent public-transit structures. Overcrowding, traffic congestion, environmental pollutants, and sizeable poverty, but, remained principal ongoing troubles.


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